The Brain Explains Its Mission and Functions

It’s come to the attention of Head Quarters that clarification is needed about the roles of Head Quarters and the relation of Head Quarters to other segments of the Unit. Unit terminology about itself has become lofty in an unhelpful way. Terms such as Intelligent, Passionate, Amazing, Self-Aware, Idealistic, and Virtuous distort the processes by which Head Quarters coordinates functions throughout each Unit for the benefit of the Unit. The following update might contribute to a less hyperbolic understanding of Head Quarters and the Unit.

The mission at Head Quarters is to keep the Unit functioning and to prepare a replacement Unit to carry on after the present one becomes inactive. Different parts of the mission are carried out in Head Quarters’ various departments. Head Quarters continuously interprets streams of data that come in from around the Unit’s Network. It receives very detailed data from the hands, mouth, and tongue especially. Data about external sounds and light sources arrive from the two pair of audio and visual receivers located adjacent to Head Quarters. Other data is handled routinely in round-the-clock monitoring of the Unit’s internal conditions, including levels of fuel, water, waste build-up, oxygen, and blood flow. Together with Lower Quarters, Head Quarters coordinates the processing of food intake. Head Quarters also tracks the position of the Unit’s appendages at any given time in order to coordinate movement.

Brain functions (AWMG.INFO)

awmg.info

The data is stored in Archives. Data that is retrieved often is easily accessed. Older and background data can be difficult to access clearly and accurately, if at all.

Head Quarters is essentially closed for business about a third of the time every twenty-four hours in order to perform such functions as offline consolidation, re-sorting of Archives, and resource replenishment.

Head Quarters implements certain Conditions—C-States—that bring on mild or intense sensations in the Unit for various length of time. Such Conditions encourage or force behaviors that are considered to support the Unit’s well-being in the short or long run. Such Conditions might involve energy levels, Unit temperature, and internal tension level. They are triggered by changes in the Unit’s surroundings, often by the presence or behavior of other Units.

Examples of common C-States include:

C-Joy, an energized state, short-lived but recurring, often activated by and reinforcing successful interactions with other Units;

C-Sadness, a low-energy condtion in which the Unit tends to withdraw from activity to recover from a setback;

C-Pain, a distressing state in part or all of the Unit that signals injury or dysfunction;

C-Arousal, the set of conditions leading to copulation; and

C-Anger, an energized state in anticipation of physical conflict with hostile Units.

Head Quarters' perspective based on where its detailed data comes from (Wikipedia)

The Unit as experienced by Head Quarters according to the concentrations of sensory and motion nerves. (Wikipedia)

Equally as refined as Head Quarters’ internal monitoring is its tracking of other Units. Some Units have exchanged signals with Head Quarters for a very long time and the Archives contain full records about them. Other Units are encountered frequently but briefly and are less familiar. And all Units, whether known well or only briefly, singly or as groups, are assessed for how they are probably monitoring this Unit. Assessments in both directions concern whether another Unit seems friendly, trustworthy, indifferent, a possible sexual partner, higher or lower in status. For reasons of safety, other Units are roughly classified as friendlies, neutrals, or hostiles. In general, Head Quarters views the formation and preservation of alliances as a significant contributor to Unit well-being. To this end, the smile expression and the laughter sound among Units are important signals.

Beyond such basic expressions, Head Quarters is extremely skilled in arranging visual components—lines, shapes, colors—and different sounds to exchange specific information or even C-States with other Units. The most widely used exchange method is a complex sound code rapidly acquired early in every Unit’s functionality. The code is in almost constant use between Units about items regardless of whether the items are physically present or out of sight or in the past or anticipated in the future. Such topics include strategies for food procurement, the behavior of other Units, and the expressions of various C-States such as C-Anger. The code is compelling and often runs silently within Head Quarters itself.

As for a visual version of the code, this communiqué illustrates its use.

The code includes identification markers for all Units. If a Unit is present and participating in an exchange, such signals as youand we are common. In addition, early in their functionality, each Unit receives a set of two markers, one that indicates its Unit group, the other indicating the Unit itself and its gender. An example is Petersen, the group marker, preceded by Mary, a female member. The Mary Petersen Unit identifies itself as Mary Petersen as well as I and me depending on the situation, and the Mary Petersen Head Quarters continually reviews the Mary Petersen past, the assessments of Mary Petersen by other Units, and the optimal plans and coming schedules for Mary Petersen. Cumulatively, these processes result in the formulation of and the belief in what are known as Mary Petersen’s self and her life.

The multiple and multi-level processes coordinated by Head Quarters are demanding. They entail almost continuous assessment of past events, present circumstances, and future possibilities. It is pleasant, even liberating, to relax those processes for periods of time by narrowing the attention to immediate sensations such as breathing.

But while the Unit operates in the present, it must constantly attend to the past and the future as well. Head Quarters is a forward-looking instrument—flexible, capable, in constant adjustment as the present moment changes and changes again. For the Unit, no single time frame is secure or complete without consideration of the other two.

That concludes this introduction to Head Quarters.  Questions may be submitted below in the visual code.

Genes Are Like Sentences, Genomes Are Like Books

I lose track sometimes of exactly what the common genetic terms mean and how the genetic pieces work together. What’s the difference between a chromosome and a strand of DNA? A gene and a genome? What are those three-letter sets in a DNA diagram called and what do they do? I’m not a scientist, but since I was an English teacher, connecting the names of genetic units to the units of written language—words, sentences, and so on—makes the picture a little clearer.  Maybe it will do the same for the reader.

Let’s start small.  The spiraling rungs on diagrams of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule are each marked with two of four specific letters: A, C, G, and T.  The four DNA letters stand for the four nucleotides—Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine—that make up DNA. Like the letters of the full alphabet, these letters–or rather the four molecules they indicate–are the smallest building blocks of their language.

codons

moodle.clsd.k12.pa.us

In DNA, combinations of the letters for the four nucleotides make up the three-letter codons that are DNA’s version of words. Each three-letter codon/word specifies one amino acid. And most codons are “synonyms” in that several different codons refer to the same amino acid because there are many more codons than there are amino acids. The codons are “read” by a ribosome, a cellular reader/assembly-machine that produces the required amino acid and attaches it to the chain of amino acids that will form a protein.

Groups of these codons make up a gene, much as words make up a sentence. The genes/sentences are long because most proteins are complex; human proteins consist of anywhere from several hundred to several thousand amino acid molecules.  The gene/sentence for red hair says something like “Put this together with that and that and that….”

Genes also include a codon at the start that says “Start the gene here” and another at the end that says “Stop here; gene complete.” Within the gene, however, no actual spaces separate the codons, but since all codons are triplets, it’s always clear where codons themselves begin and end.  (Somewhat similarly, writing in the ancient world often lacked spaces between words.  As long as one could read slowly and figurethewordsoutspacesweren’tessential.)

chromosome (mayoclinic.org)

mayoclinic.org

So, to recap.  The four nucleotides are basic components much like the letters of our alphabet. Groups of three nucleotides spell out codons that can be thought of as words, which in this case are actual amino acid molecules.  And a sequence of codons/amino acids forms a gene that resembles a sentence in a protein recipe for some aspect of the organism.

Finally there are chromosomes and genomes.

A molecule of DNA is very long, a continuous strand of anywhere from a couple of hundred to more than a thousand genes, many of them about related aspects of the organism. Each molecule is a chromosome which, because its genes concern similar aspects of the body, can be compared to a chapter in a book.  But it is a strange book in that each chapter appears twice, in anticipation of the day when the molecule/chapter reproduces itself. Each human cell contain 23 such paired chromosomes, duplicate copies of the assembly instructions for an entire human being. Only the chromosome pair that determines sex contains chromosomes that are different from each other about half the time: females have two identical female chromosomes while males carry one female and one male chromosome.

Finally, our genome is like the book itself, the totality of all our genes on all our chromosomes. The book might be called Me And Us. Your genome book is almost exactly like mine except for about one tenth of one percent of our 20,000 genes that are different. That’s similar to two copies of the same long book that differ only in a few sentences.

Simplified though the comparison is, it’s startling what genetics and written language have in common considering that the second is a recent human invention and the first represents the formation of life almost four billion years ago. Both are composed of the smallest building blocks, then the groupings created from the building blocks, then the meaningful statements/instructions/recipes coded in the groupings, and finally the conversion of the code into organic construction/action/speech.